Environmental reporting and greenhouse gas inventory of the Norwegian defence sector for 2023

FFI-Report 2024
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Kristian Blindheim Lausund Simen Kirkhorn Tove Engen Karsrud Petter Prydz
The reports in the series “Environmental reporting in the Norwegian defence sector” are published annually by the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) and present data reported by the defence sector and associated partners to the Norwegian Defence Environmental Database (NDED). The reports provide an overview of results and trends for environmental aspects of the defence sector’s operations including waste production, energy expenditure, fuel consumption, use of ammunition, water consumption, consumption of chemicals and acute pollution. Greenhouse gas emissions are presented in a greenhouse gas inventory. Waste generation is reported to the NDED by associated waste management companies contracted within the various regions of the Norwegian Defence Estate Agency (NDEA). The total amount of waste produced in 2023 was 15 569 tons, which represents a 10.1% increase compared to 2022. The degree of waste sorting was 63,2%, an increase of 0,6 pp compared to the previous year. 32.1% of the waste was recycled while 56.5% was processed with energy recovery. Energy consumption associated with the defence sector’s buildings and properties in Norway is reported by the NDEA through statistics from suppliers. The total energy consumption in buildings and other properties is estimated to 759 GWh in 2023. This represents a 2.5% increase compared to 2022. Of the energy used in 2023, 94% came from renewable sources, which is about the same as the previous year. Fuel consumption connected to the use of vehicles, aircraft, vessels and auxiliary power units was 90 597 m3 in 2023. This is a decrease by approximately 3% compared to 2022. Fuel consumption on aircraft and vessels represents 91% of the total fuel consumption in the defence sector. The use of ammunition is reported and specified on a digital form (DBL-750) by organizational unit, shooting range and ammunition type. A total of 17 384 762 units of ammunition were reported used in 2023, which is 1.4% more than in 2022. The degree of reporting is the relationship between ammunition provided to the armed forces and the proportion reported being used. The degree of reporting in 2023 was 74% (excluding blank ammunition), which is a decrease of one percentage point compared to 2022. The reported use of lead-based small arms ammunition has increased with 370 000 units, or 61%, from 2022 to 2023. The estimated emission of lead is 4.5 tons in 2023, compared to 2.8 tons in 2022, an increase of 63%. Water consumption is reported by the NDEA based on measured and estimated volumes. The total water consumption in 2023 was 2.29 million m3, an increase of 10.1% compared to 2022. The use of chemicals is reported from establishments within the sector where chemicals are used on a regular basis, but is with the exception of de-icing fluids insufficiently reported. 30 796 kg of aircraft deicing, and 388 815 kg of runway deicing fluids were reported in 2023. The relative usage of urea to the total usage of runway deicing fluids was 80% in 2023, the same as in 2022. The greenhouse gas inventory consists of reported fuel and energy use and emission factors associated with the various materials. Emissions from the defence sector’s activities were estimated to 247 795 tons of CO2-equivalents in 2023 (scope 1 and 2), and 1 293 616 tons of CO2-equivalents when including indirect emissions not mandatory to reporting (scope 1, 2 and 3). Emissions in scope 1 and 2 have decreased by 5% compared to 2022. There is a close relation between the demands and prerequisites which dictate the sector’s volume and pattern of activity and its total impact on the environment. It is therefore relevant to assess this impact in light of the tasks assigned to the defence sector within a dynamic political framework.

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