How can the Norwegian Armed Forces reduce its greenhouse gas emissions?

FFI-Report 2021

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21/01488

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978-82-464-3369-1

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3.1 MB

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Brynjar Arnfinnsson Simen Kirkhorn
The activities of the Norwegian Armed Forces have several negative effects on the environment. Some of these effects are inevitable, given the nature of the tasks of the Armed Forces. The environmental impacts are monitored and reported on annually. Emission of greenhouse gases from the defence sector has received increased attention internationally and nationally, and the Norwegian Ministry of Defence has tasked the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) to study the potential for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in the Norwegian Armed Forces. The aim of this report is to model this potential within the boundaries set by the military requirements. This study does not contain a complete list of possible environmental measures in the defence sector. We have prioritized areas where current knowledge is lacking. We have also considered the emission effect of a newly proposed alternative concept for maritime warfare. This alternative concept should not be understood as an emission-reduction measure, it is primarily a measure to increase capability and reduce costs. However, we wish to demonstrate the emission consequence of such a concept, and use it as an example of how technology can be used to achieve more climate-efficient solutions in the defence sector. To be able to quantify the consequence of emission-reduction measures we have modelled the future emission from the Norwegian Armed Forces. The following measures are modelled quantitatively: Use of advanced biofuels, battery hybridization on surface vessels, efficiency measures on surface vessels, increased use of simulator systems, an alternative replacement of the Nornen class surface vessel, a new concept for maritime warfare, and liquefied natural gas propulsion systems on new Coast Guard surface vessels. Use of advanced biofuels will increase the operating costs of the Armed Forces. All the other measures have the potential to reduce total costs. For some of the measures the costs needs to be examined more closely. In total, the quantitatively modelled measures have the potential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 15–30% relative to the baseline for future emissions, with a mean estimate of approximately 22%. In addition, several other measures are discussed and presented. These measures are just as important as the quantitatively modelled measures; however, the emission-reduction effect can be difficult to quantify. At the same time, such measures are more studied in the literature. The measures discussed here are integrated environmental management, green acquisitions, reduced food waste, climate-friendly food choices and reduced (air) travel activity. The military platforms of the Armed Forces has a long service life. Investing in energy inefficient solutions now will bind the sector to emissions and costs for many years into the future. With regards to emissions as well as costs we therefore recommend that emission projections gain a more prominent role in procurement decisions and in the long-term defence planning process.

About publication

Report number

21/01488

ISBN

978-82-464-3369-1

Format

PDF-document

Size

3.1 MB

Download publication

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