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​​Typical underwater communication set-up with a dispersive channel. Illustration: FFI.

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Watermark is a benchmark for the physical-layer in underwater acoustic communications. It allows researchers to develop, test and compare communication schemes without the need for testing at sea.

The objective of the present initiative is to provide an easy-to-use software tool which enables benchmarking of modulation schemes under realistic and reproducible conditions.


Watermark is a shell around the validated FFI channel simulator Mime, which is driven by measurements of the time-varying impulse response.


The release includes an archive of channels measured in three frequency bands and four different environments. Watermark is programmed in MATLAB and can be used under the Windows and Linux operating systems.


Free download: 

User Manual

Journal paper: The Watermark benchmark for underwater acoustic modulation schemes

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