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International military operations
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The research on international operation at the FFI began with the Challenges in international peace and stability operations, called CHIPS-projects, in 2007.

CHIPS I (2007-2009) provided a broad overview of the field of international operations.


Based on the findings of CHIPS I, CHIPS II (2010-2012) looked more in-depth in three areas.
The first was the institutional framework – NATO, EU, UN and US – that the Norwegian Armed Forces must expect to operate within. The second area was to look at the constraints but also opportunities facing small states in international operations. The third area was the protection of civilians as an emerging new objective in international operations.


The operational concepts Protection of civilians has posed a new challenge in most operations that remains largely unresolved and requires novel thinking about the utility of force.  How military forces can best be used to protect civilians against deliberate attack is the focus of our work at the FFI.
Unlike many other research institutes, we do not carry out only academic research, but seek to build on our academic work to develop practical tools for the military. Our main product has been a set of guidelines, which is intended for use during the planning and execution of operations where protection of civilians is an objective.


CHIPS III (2012-2014) moved further towards understanding the operative demands that military forces need to meet to reach their objectives in current operations. The project should support and guide the work to develop operative concepts for the Norwegian Armed forces, deepen the knowledge base on international operational concepts, as well as develop future scenarios for international operations.


In this context, CHIPS III (2013-2015) had three main research areas:

  • protection of civilians in military operations
  • military advisory and assistance operations
  • US military doctrines for cooperation with allies

The guidelines on protection of civilians have now been adapted both to NATO and to UN peacekeeping operations. The project drew together its knowledge to analyze the future challenges that military forces will face in international operations in the book International Military Operations in the 21st Century
Global Trends and the Future of Intervention, published as hardback in 2015 and paperback in 2016.

Read more about the book here.


CHIPS III was merged into project Concept Development and Operations and will be completed within its wider framework.

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